Almost every person in his life has faced such an unpleasant phenomenon as intraocular hemorrhage. This ailment is not just a cosmetic defect, but can also cause a number of serious inconveniences in everyday life. Hemorrhage, the causes of which were not determined in a timely manner, may occur again. Often it is this sign that indicates the development of serious diseases that should not be ignored. To make a diagnosis and start adequate therapy, the patient needs an appointment with a doctor. The earlier treatment is started, the less likely it is to develop undesirable consequences.
What is an intraocular hemorrhage?
Intraocular hemorrhage is damage to the blood capillaries, which in 90% of cases indicates the presence of vascular problems or pathology of the organ of vision. Depending on the localization of the process , there are four types of ailment:
It is an accumulation of blood between the iris of the eye and the cornea. In 90% of cases, it occurs as a result of blunt mechanical damage. Hyphema requires urgent ophthalmological intervention to prevent complications.
Hemophthalmos is a hemorrhage in the vitreous body. In the absence of timely therapy, there is a risk of complete or partial blindness. This type of pathology is one of the most dangerous: the patient may need surgery to correct complications.
- Subconjunctival hemorrhage
It is caused by damage to the vessels of the conjunctiva. This type of ailment is one of the most harmless, as it passes without medical intervention.
- Accumulation of blood in the retinal area
This pathology is quite dangerous: even a small amount of blood is enough for complete loss of vision. Hemorrhage, the causes of which lie in damage to the retina, requires additional examination.
Intraocular hemorrhage: causes
Intraocular hemorrhage is not always a consequence of direct damage to the eyeball. About 90% of all patients who go to the doctor with this symptom have other chronic pathologies that they did not suspect. The main causes and factors contributing to its occurrence:
- hypertension or symptomatic hypertension (a sharp increase in blood pressure leads to damage to almost all vessels);
- blunt blows to the eye socket or brow ridges (during a fight, a traffic accident);
- mechanical damage to tissues when wearing lenses;
- a sharp increase in intra-abdominal pressure (with dry unproductive cough, vomiting, childbirth, straining);
- taking medications that affect blood viscosity (especially aspirin, Clopidogrel, warfarin);
- vitamin K deficiency;
- congenital diseases associated with impaired formation of blood clotting factors (hemophilia);
- operations performed on the organ of vision (especially LASIK correction: hemorrhage in the eye is one of the frequent side effects of surgical intervention);
- the presence of infectious diseases (viral, bacterial or parasitic nature).
What symptoms accompany hemorrhage in the eye
Intraocular hemorrhage, the causes of which may be associated with the development of various pathologies, is often accompanied by the appearance of other pathological signs. It is worth noting that these symptoms can develop both before and after the appearance of blood in the eye:
- headache and nausea;
- loss of consciousness;
- dull pain in the eye socket;
- reduction of visual acuity up to its complete loss;
- the formation of a red spot on the mucous membrane of the eye, which can have different sizes and contours;
- with a massive volume of released blood, exophthalmos may occur: the affected eyeball is slightly protruding from the socket;
- the appearance of haze, flashes and flickering spots before the eyes.
In 90% of cases, other manifestations are associated with the underlying disease. Based on their nature, the doctor will be able to determine why there was a hemorrhage in the eye.
Treatment and appointment with a doctor
A small hemorrhage, not accompanied by loss of vision, is treated at home. Often, the patient does not need the use of special drops: conventional moisturizers and vitamins of group A, B, E. If the deterioration of vision progresses or the pain syndrome increases within a few days, an appointment with a doctor is necessary. By phone, a specialist can only give general recommendations: a personal visit is required to conduct a full examination. In order to correct the condition that has arisen, the patient is treated in accordance with the underlying disease (treatment of hypertension, hemophilia), and anti-inflammatory drops (Indocollir, diclofenac) are prescribed, which promote blood resorption. In some cases, surgical intervention may be required. To prevent infection, it is prohibited:
- rub your eyes;
- wear contact lenses;
- paint or build up eyelashes.
Hemorrhage in the eye is a symptom that indicates the presence of problems in the human body. That is why it should not be ignored. Prevention is based on compliance with the following recommendations:
- adequate treatment of the underlying disease (especially hypertension);
- compliance with safety regulations to prevent eye injuries (safety glasses, helmets);
- healthy diet, rejection of bad habits and regular physical activity (contribute to the strengthening of the body);
- regular visits to an ophthalmologist;
- compliance with the rules of eye care (including recommendations regarding personal hygiene when changing lenses).